Introduction

Atmosphere (gases)
1) mixture of gases surrounding the Earth (or any other celestial body)
2) body must have sufficient gravity to prevent the gases from escaping

Atmosphere Composition : Earth
• nitrogen (78 %)
• oxygen (21 %)
• argon (0.9 )
• carbon dioxide (0.03 %) • water vapour (varying amts)
• hydrogen (traces)
• few other gases

Hydrosphere (liquids)
1) consists chiefly of the oceans
2) includes all water surfaces
inland seas, lakes, rivers, etc.

Biosphere (mixed)
1) This is Earth's thin zone of air, soil, and water that is capable of supporting life.
2) It ranges from about 10 km into the atmosphere to the deepest ocean floor.
3) Life in this zone depends on the sun's energy and on the circulation of heat and essential nutrients.

Lithosphere (solid)
The lithosphere is the earth’s crust and upper mantle. The crust contains non-renewable fossil fuels (created from ancient fossils that were buried and subjected to intense pressure and heat) and minerals, and renewable soil chemicals (nutrients) needed for plant life.

1) This is the outer part of Earth, consisting of the crust and the upper mantle.
2) These the two parts have different rock compositions.
3) However the two parts are viewed as a single unit because both are brittle and they behave as a single mass.
4) The lithosphere is approximately 65 to 100 km thick.
5) The lithosphere is regard the lithosphere as the relatively cool, outermost layer of the planet and view it as a rigid shell.
6) We live on the crust.
7) Most mining occurs on the crust, and thus the crust is seen as a source of man's materials.

Copyright ©
Academic Technologies
academic@afrihost.co.za