Mining

1. Where does man mainly get his materials from?
The Earth’s crust.

2. What materials are available? Abundant?
• iron
• gold
• phosphate
• coal
• oil
• etc

3. Where are these materials found?
atmosphere
• nitrogen
• oxygen
• (gases)

hydrosphere
• salt (NaCl)
• chlorine
• sodium hydroxide
• hydrogen

biosphere
• mix of many different substances

lithosphere
• gold
• iron
• phosphates
• coal
• etc.

4. Are elements evenly or unevenly distributed across the atmosphere?
unevenly

5. How are the elements found?
(as pure elements or minerals)
mostly found as minerals
A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes.

Minerals have a:
• characteristic chemical composition
• a highly ordered atomic structure
• specific physical properties
• It is usually found as rock

6. How are precious materials recovered?
This is done by mining, which entails the process of:
• separating them from their surroundings by physical means
• and processing them to recover the desired metal or other precious material.

7. Why is there a need to mine?
Most minerals are now found only underground, hence mining is required to get to these materials.

8. What is meant by the following terms?
resources
• a source of supply

reserves
• to keep, store or save for future use
• an amount of a mineral, fossil fuel, or other resource in storage for later use

ore
• a metal-bearing mineral or rock, or a native metal, that can be mined at a profit

ore body
• source of ore, collection of ore

mining
• Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body

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