Isomers

Structural Isomers
(3 types)
These are compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulae
If we say that TWO compounds are structural isomers, then they have exactly the same number and type of individual atoms, but are arranged into different structures.
Obviously they would have different names.

1. Chain Isomers
Same molecular formula, but different types of chains,
e.g. butane and 2-methylpropane.


butane
C4H10


2-methylpropane
C4H10

2. Positional Isomers
Same molecular formula, but different positions of the side chain, substituents or functional groups on the parent chain,
e.g. 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane or but-2-ene and but-1-ene


1-chloropropane
C3H7Cl


2-chloropropane
C3H7Cl

3. Functional Isomers
Same molecular formula, but different functional groups,
e.g.methyl methanoate and ethanoic acid.

methyl methanoate
C2H4O2


ethanoic acid
C2H4O2


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