Substitution Reactions


This is a type of reaction where an atom (such as Br) or a group of atoms (such as -OH) is replaced (substituted) by another atom or by another group of atoms.
It is important to note that substitution reactions occur for saturated compounds

ALKANES

Substitutions Reactions for Alkanes

Reaction condition: heat (Δ) or light (hf)
Notice that the H in the alkane is swopped with one Br from the Br2


Diagram 1

HALOALKANES

Substitutions Reactions for Haloalkanes

Reaction condition for haloalkanes: NaOH (or (KOH) dissolved in ethanol and heat
Notice that the Br and the OH are swopped over.


Diagram 2
This is also possible


Diagram 3

ALCOHOLS

Substitutions Reactions for Primary and Secondary Alcohols

Reaction condition for primary and secondary alcohols: high temperature
Notice that the OH and the Br are swopped over.


Diagram 4

Substitutions Reactions for Tertiary Alcohols

Reaction condition for tertiary alcohols: room temperature
Notice that the OH and the Br are swopped over.


Diagram 5


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